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About the authors

Nick Millman is EALA lead, digital, data and analytics technology, Accenture

William Gatehouse is senior manager, process and information management, Accenture

Image: Ingram Publishing/Thinkstock

This was last published in April 2013
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After Constantine I proclaimed toleration for the Christians (313) and persecution ended, it was possible for bishops from many provinces to convene in a general council. The idea of an ecumenical council and its special authority, however, was slow to develop. The term ecumenical council was first used by the historian Eusebius (died c. 340) in his life of Constantine to describe the Council of Nicaea (325), which was summoned by Constantine. Such imperially summoned councils and ordinary provincial councils differed sharply, but the distinction was more of size and practice than of defined authority. The decisions of such a council were obviously more binding than were those of earlier provincial councils because the emperor made them effective in secular law. It was not at first evident, however, that there might be a peculiar sacredness about the decisions of such a council because all councils were believed to be under the guidance of the Holy Spirit . After the Council of Nicaea (325), the idea developed that its decisions could not be reformed, and Athanasius argued that Nicaea was an especially sacred council because it was attended by bishops from all parts of the church. The councils of Ephesus (431) and of Chalcedon (451) declared that the decisions of Nicaea were unalterable. But it was assumed, rather than formally stated, that ecumenical councils, once recognized to be such, could not err. In practice, the idea of irreformable canons was often confined to matters of faith. In matters of discipline later councils continued to alter the decisions of earlier ecumenical councils, for changing circumstances often made the old canons irrelevant or unenforceable.

Ecumenical councils recognized by both Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics are:

First Council of Nicaea (325)

First Council of Constantinople (381)

Council of Ephesus (431)

Council of Chalcedon (451)

Second Council of Constantinople (553)

Third Council of Constantinople (680–681)

Second Council of Nicaea (787)

Those recognized by Roman Catholics are:

Fourth Council of Constantinople


First Lateran Council (1123)

Second Lateran Council (1139)

Third Lateran Council (1179)

Fourth Lateran Council (1215)

First Council of Lyon (1245)

Second Council of Lyon (1274)

Council of Vienne (1311–12)

Council of Constance (1414–18)

Council of Ferrara-Florence

(1438– c. 1445)

Fifth Lateran Council (1512–17)

Council of Trent (1545–63)

First Vatican Council (1869–70)

Second Vatican Council (1962–65)

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